Weathered Wood Logs in the Road Chopped Firewood


  • Invasion by exotic forest pests: a threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science Monographs 30. Bethesda Maryland, USA. 49 pp.

    • Liebhold, A.M.
    • MacDonald, W.L.
    • Mastro, V.C.
    • 1995

    For millions of years the distribution of the world's biota has been restricted by oceans and other natural barriers. During the last 100 years, human activities, especially international travel and trade, have circumvented these barriers and species are invading new continents at an increasing rate. Biological invasions of insect, plants, and fungal pest species often cause substantial disturbance to forest ecosystems and as well as severe socioeconomic impacts. The invasion process is composed of three phases: arrival, establishment, and spread. Arrival occurs when a species is initially transported to the new area (e.g. transportation to a new continent). Establishment is essentially the opposite of extinction; it is the process by which a population becomes abundant enough to prevent extinction. Spread is the process by which a species expands its range into adjoining uninfested areas. Management of pest invasions focuses on preventing arrival, establishment, or spread. We present case histories that illustrate the invasion process via details of the arrival, spread, impact, and management of selected exotic forest pests. Biological invasions are probably the most significant environmental threat to the maintenance of natural forest ecosystems in North America and elsewhere. The magnitude of this problem necessitates increased efforts to reduce the incidence and impacts of pest invasions.

  • Residential firewood use in the united states. science 219(4591): 1425-1427.

    • Lipfert, F.W.
    • Dungan, J.L.
    • 1983

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  • Transporting Firewood Harms Campground Forests. Michigan State Government. Accessed February 25, 2009.

    • Michigan
    • 2005
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  • Modeling local and long distance dispersal of invasive emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera) in North America. Diversity and Distributions 12:71-79.

    • Muirhead, J.R.
    • Leung, B.
    • vanOverdijk, C.
    • Kelly, D.W.
    • Nandakumar, K.
    • Marchant, K.R.
    • MacIsaac, H.J.
    • 2006
    Modeling local and long distance dispersal of invasive emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera) in North America.

    Limiting the damage by non-indigenous species requires rapid determination of current and potential distributions and vectors of dispersal, and development of appropriate management measures. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle native to South-East Asia, was first reported in the Great Lakes region during summer 2002. The beetle poses an enormous threat to native ash (Fraxinus) species of North America, as untreated trees in infested areas of Ontario, Michigan and Ohio suffer high mortality. We demonstrate that the borer has spread in North America through a combination of diffusive range extension, associated with local flights, and by long-distance ‘jump’ dispersal associated with human movement of infested sapling or contaminated firewood. Probability of infestation was inversely related to distance from borer epicentres but positively related to the size of human population centres. At least 9 of 39 populations that were first reported in Michigan during 2004 cannot be accounted for by local diffusion, raising the possibility that other unidentified mechanisms may be contributing to the dispersal of the beetle. In the absence of quarantine, by 2005 all of Michigan’s lower peninsula was contained within the boundaries of potential diffusive range expansion. Infested ash saplings also were introduced from Michigan to Maryland during 2003, and subsequently transplanted to five sites in Maryland and Virginia. Quarantine and eradication measures have had mixed results: in the south-central USA, the species appears on the brink of eradication, whereas its distribution has continued to spread during 2005 in the Great Lakes region despite extensive containment and quarantine measures. Quarantine success in the Great Lakes region is encumbered by multiple dispersal vectors, larger borer population sizes and by the more extensive geographical distribution that was achieved prior to implementation of control measures.